In Protestantism compared with Catholicism in its relations with European civilization(1887), one of the most popular and translated polemical essays of the time, Jaime Balmes argues that Luther's attack on the mediatorial role of the Church demolished Whatsapp Mobile Number List Europeans' respect for authority, leading directly to the French Revolution and all subsequent political upheavals. A century later, when liberal writers began their campaign against communism, they often compared it to Catholicism, which had long been their enemy.
They said it was not just an alternative economic system, but a value system that it was all-encompassing and required total submission, not only of the body but also of the mind. As Arthur M. Schlesinger said in The Vital Center in 1949, both systems make their Whatsapp Mobile Number List followers "so emotionally dependent on discipline" that they lack Whatsapp Mobile Number List to think independently. Fascism was also part of the mobilizing controversy. And although this fact was rarely mentioned in the debates after 2016, one of its most important uses as a historical analogy was not the campaign against the extreme right, but against Muslims.
In the first decade of the 21st century, journalists and thinkers warned of a revival of fascism among radical Muslim groups, a phenomenon they termed "Islamofascism." Christopher Hitchens, Norman Podhoretz, and others reflected that Osama bin Laden's followers Whatsapp Mobile Number List embodied blind Nazi fanaticism, glorification of violence, hatred of feminism, and opposition to "Western freedoms." These assertions flourished not only in trivial slogans but also a considerable academic production.